THE FORMATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC POLICY IN UKRAINE: REGIONAL SPECIFICITY
features of national environmental policy formation and functioning are researched. A conclusion that the environmental crisis is a result of imperfections in the social and economic system mechanisms is received. The role of the environmental component in political and economic problems solving is determined. The problems of implementation modern national environmental policy are analyzed. The necessity of its further improving is substantiated and the priority directions of its further development are determined. The implementation of the reform process of the national economic policy sustainable use and recreation of natural resources and objects within all industrial and territorial complexes in Ukraine, that distinguished by high resource and energy consumption, was associated primarily with the need to overcome the environmental and economic crisis events. In aspect of the environmental and economic development of Ukraine in 1992-2015 can be divided into two stages: - general ecological and economic crisis with a simultaneous significant reducing of the main natural resources using (1992-2000) - water, mineral, partly land, reducing emissions into the air etc.; - relative stabilization and revival beginning (since 2000) of industrial and agricultural manufacturing with increasing in certain regions of the polluted water volume, the harmful substances emissions and others.
The current in Ukraine system of indicators for assessing the ecological environment and natural resources management is largely based on the parameters of 70th years statistical reporting. To change this evaluation methodology should concentrate on the following directions of the formation of sustainable using and reproduction of natural resources principles: - the scientific substantiation for internal needs of Ukraine in various types of natural resources; - accelerated implementation of the prevention measures of the irreversible violations of environment ecological state in ore mining areas and industrial urban agglomerations, ensuring its sustainable improvement and ecologically balanced condition; - execution of environmentally sound assessments of population specific provision by different types of natural resources, including life-supporting; - improving the economic levers of environmental control.
Ukraine is one of the countries whose development largely depends on balancing the use of available natural resource base, primarily life-supporting (land, water, mineral and raw material). Research and analysis confirm that, despite the inherited problems of development, Ukraine has its own opportunities of problems solving, especially through the effective using of all kinds natural resources.
Assuming that the industrial structure is the core national economy, its dynamics, natural and resource input, the priority objective is the improvement of industry structure in the direction of increasing its technology and providing benefits to those sectors and industries that produce the final ecologically not capacious and environmentally friendly products. This is a problem of great strategic goal, to which the public policy must focus.
Thus, the most active level of ecological and economic systems is regional one, as the region (area) is also the governance subject, at this level environmental problems of society are emerging, the requirements for the production greening and environmental management are nominated. The region combines specific area points of productive forces distribution, polluting enterprises and natural resources using enterprises, which are parts of its economic structure. The structure and scale of regional production determine the character and volume of pollution, the intensity of the impact on the environment.
Thus, the development of the national economy requires considering for at least three factors: first, the natural resource potential of the national territory, which in Ukraine, as in each country, has its limitations, especially when it comes to some of the basic elements of the environment (water, forests, etc.); second, the development of economic, particularly industrial, structure, oriented towards on minimization of natural resources costs; thirdly, economical production and using of natural resources, because it is not only related to the economy, but above all with air pollution, water and so on. The more powerful the natural resources are involved in the production process, the greater possibility of deterioration in the environment quality by harmful industrial and non-industrial emissions.
JEL: R 58
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