PROPERTIES OF CALCULATION ACTIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTING SKILL
The article describes computational actions in terms of activity approach in psychology. It is established that they belong to mental actions, which according to P. Halperin are the result of the transformation of external material action into a plan of perception, ideas, and concepts. Based on the research of P. Halperin and S. Stepanova, it is shown that for the formation of a full action, in particular computational, a strict sequence of stages is required. At each of these stages, the formation of certain properties of action is done. This is because each higher form is built on the basis of the previous one.
Six directions are described in which there is a change of action from external, material, to mental. Structural, dynamic, level and psychological parameters of action are analyzed.
It is established that the structural features of the action include its completeness. This means that the action can be performed with a complete or incomplete composition of links. There may be a detailed execution of the action, or its reduction. The deployment of an action involves showing all its operations in their relationship. As you master the action, the operation is reduced and the action becomes contracted. The reduction can occur consciously or spontaneously. At spontaneous reduction the learner does not understand why it is possible to skip the operation; conscious reduction provides an opportunity to return from contracted forms of action to more complete ones.
The structural properties of a conscious action consist in its specific performance. It can be in the form of a continuous stream, or in a clear section of its individual links, or in its complete restoration, or with the omission of individual or even all links, where from the original data the subject immediately proceeds to the result. A completely contracted action is the action according to a formula, when from the initial data and the indication of the action with them the learner goes directly to the result, bypassing all intermediate transformations.
The dynamic parameters of action include force and time characteristics. Force characteristics include the magnitude and distribution of forces in different areas of action, and time characteristics, the pace and rhythm of action. It is shown that at the beginning of learning the pace should be slow enough so that the student can easily master the objective structure of the action and should start with a fully developed and artificially slowed down action.
All these characteristics are taken into account by M. Bantova in characterizing a full computing skill, to which the scientist attributed the correctness, awareness, rationality, generalization, automatism and strength.