The contract as the ground for the emergence of rights and obligations regarding restricted turnover objects in civil trade
Contractual obligations that arise in relation to restricted turnover objects have recently become widespread in practice, which is due to rapid social development. Despite this, the specifics of the procedure for concluding, changing or terminating such transactions have not been clearly defined at the legislative level. In addition, the peculiarities of the contractual alienation or transfer of objects restricted in turnover have remained poorly studied by the scientific community.
The importance of a civil legal contract as one of the main regulators of private law relations is difficult to overestimate. Thanks to the possibility to enter into contracts fixed at the legislative level, subjects of civil law are able not only to establish, change or terminate their civil rights and obligations, but also to involve in civil trade various objects of civil law, including those that have been limited in turnover.
The national legislator allows the use of contractual constructions of various kinds to ensure the turnover of objects of civil rights. This has been directly indicated by the content of Art. 178 of the Civil Code of Ukraine. Its systematic analysis has proved that objects restricted in turnover can be alienated, that is, they can be transferred from the ownership of one person to another with the help of contracts of sale, donation, exchange, etc.
The contract is one of the main legal means of attracting restricted turnover objects of civil rights to trade. The legislator envisages the possibility of subjects of obligation law to use various types of contracts to settle legal relations that arise in relation to restricted objects. The influence of the studied objects on the principle of freedom of contract can’t be denied. It manifests itself in limiting the range of subjects of contractual obligations, the terms of existence of contractual relations, the possibility of choosing the type of contract that will mediate the mutual rights and obligations of the parties, etc.