SCIENTIFIC FUNDAMENTALS OF THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF CRITICAL THINKING OF FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
The purpose of the article is to analyze the scientific foundations of the process of forming critical thinking of future primary school teachers. Objectives of the study: to analyze scientific interpretations of the content of the concept of «critical thinking of the teacher»; to identify scientific approaches to the development of technologies for the formation of critical thinking of students of pedagogical free economic zones.
The urgency of the problem of formation of critical thinking of future specialists in the period of intensive social and economic changes in Ukraine is revealed in the article. Only a critical educator is capable of creative innovation. A teacher who does not have critical thinking cannot teach his students to think critically.
The author of the article notes that in the scientific literature there are many interpretations of the concept of «critical thinking». It is seen primarily as one aspect of reflection. Critical thinking necessarily involves both positive and negative evaluation of the thought process and its results. Characteristic features of critical thinking, scientists call its systematization and ability to generalize. In this regard, it is important to master a number of techniques of intellectual activity. Scientists consider critical thinking inseparable from creative thinking.
The author notes that the development of critical thinking is a difficult task. This quality develops in the process of solving problematic pedagogical situations. It covers the formation of future teachers'; system of knowledge about the essence of this phenomenon (thinking, reflection, pedagogical and critical thinking), mastering the means and methods of forming critical thinking (methods, techniques, forms, tools, technologies).
The author of the article identified a number of methodological approaches to solving the problem of forming students'; critical thinking. The personal- pragmatic approach is realized in individual and group forms of training of students, in dialogic activity, in game interaction. The situational approach involves the formation of cases of problematic pedagogical situations, their modeling, analysis and solution. The activity approach includes teaching students to plan (determine the purpose, content, forms, methods) and implementation of pedagogical activities (regulation, control, critical self-analysis and self-assessment of achieved results).
Based on the analysis of the works of scientists, the author identifies the most important characteristics of the technology of formation of critical thinking of students: equality of subjects of study; the role of the teacher as a facilitator of the educational process; creating an educational environment where there is an atmosphere of search and openness, natural cooperation and communication; belief in the strength of the student, support for his active position in learning, etc.