PSYCHOANALITIC AND HERMENEUTIC INTERPRETATION OF TRAUMA AS A FACTOR OF LITERARY WORLD (IN UKRAINIAN AND POLISH SHORT STORIES OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIXTH – THE BEGINNING OF THE XXTH CENTURIES)
Aim. In the paper, Ukrainian and Polish short stories and novellas of the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (Ivan Franko’s «Grits’s School», «Pencil», «Schönschreiben», Borys Hrinchenko’s «Bell», «Exam», Boleslaw Prus’s «Antek», Henrik Sienkiewicz's «From the Teacher’s Memories») have been discussed. School system is analyzed in these texts as mental and physical trauma for a child. Methods. Based on S. Freud's psychoanalysis, in particular the theory of dreams, the psychological behavioral characteristics of children who are in the crucial mental and physical conditions in the result of the traumas caused by school have been studied. Results. Constant intimidation, severe physical punishment, humiliation of children and their national dignity by teachers and scholastic unacceptable teaching system have been spotlighted. Scientific novelty. In the work for the first time, through the prism of the psychoanalytic method, the classical texts of Ukrainian and Polish literatures have been analyzed, the discourse of trauma has been outlined as an important factor in plot creation and an element of the literary world of characters. Practical meaning. The material of the article can be used for further study of texts in a comparative perspective and through psychoanalytic approach.
Key words: school as psychological trauma, pschool as physical trauma, psychoanalysis, onyric discourse.