INITIATION AS A POETIC FEATURE OF SHORT STORIES BY S. ZWEIG (SCIENTIFIC AND METHODICAL MATERIALS FOR STUDYING A NOVELISTIC HERITAGE OF THE WRITER IN HIGH SCHOOL)
The article deals with the poetical specifics of short stories by S. Zweig, in particular in the aspect of their structure. The aim of the article is to prove that the initiation is a poetic feature of short stories by S. Zweig, as well as to generalize and adapt the scientific and theoretical material regarding this problem for students, who study philology during their preparation for practical and seminary classes. The research method consists of extrapolation of the meaning of initiation as a specific socio-psychological phenomenon into the short stories of S. Zweig, as well as in the definition of initiation, which forms the content and essence of the climax moment in the short stories, a specific poetic feature of this genre. The results of the research. It is proved that the climax moment, embedded in the nature of short story at the level of its structure, is formed due to the interaction of two specific features of the novelistic genre – the plot and the subject. It is revealed that in the plot unfolding events from the life of the character, depicts the changes to which they led in his feelings or consciousness; in the subject – the parallel disclosure of forces, which are not understood by the hero, which, however, have become the reason for such a development of events and qualitative changes in the inner world of the character – the initiation. It is established that at the climax of moment, when the plot and subject lines are crossed, the idea of a work is born. In the article is analyzed the meaning of the concept of initiation as a specific socio-psychological phenomenon and its varieties. It is determined that the situations in which the characters of S. Zweig fall into while experiencing the moment of spiritual enlightenment are boundary. Exactly during such moments the «spontaneous» initiations and ontological transformations take place with the characters of short stories. It finds expression in their way of thinking, in behavior, in their, often fatal, deeds. It is proved that initiation is the culmination of the narrative, and, accordingly, its poetic feature, lais in its very nature. In the scientific research are examples of the initiation of main characters in short stories, such as «Amok», «Twenty-four hours in the life of a woman», «Burning secret». Scientific novelty. The problem of initiation as a socio-psychological phenomenon is included in the genre of short stories by S. Zweig and constitutes the scientific novelty of the article. The practical significance of the results of research is in the possibility of its use in further study of the poetic specificity of short stories by S. Zweig as well as in the preparation of students who study philology for practical and seminary classes.