Defining Approaches To The Classification Of Criminal Procedure Policies Of EU Member States
This article analyzes the approaches to the classification of criminal procedural policiesof EU Member States. The basic variants of classifications of models (types) of criminal procedure policies of the EU Member States are investigated.
It is considered that in the context of defining approaches to the classification of criminal procedural policies of the Member States of the European Union, it would be optimal to simultaneously use the terms «model» and «type» of criminal procedural policy as universal synonymous categories, that reflecting both European and Ukrainian legal traditions.
Despite the tendency to unification and converge criminal procedural legislation of EU Member States on the basis of EU standards, criminal procedural policies in such countries have significant differences.
Belonging to a particular model (type) of criminal procedure policy is determined on the basis of the content of the legal system of a particular EU Member State and is conditioned by various factors.
First of all, there are two basic models (types) of criminal procedural policies of EU Member States at the global level: Anglo-Saxon and Continental (Romano-German). The Continental (Romano-German) model (type) of criminal procedure policy has the following types: French (Romance), German and Swedish (Scandinavian).
The German type (model) had the greatest influence on the formulation of criminal (type), the following subspecies are distinguished: Central and Eastern European, Baltic, Balkan.
The models (types) of criminal procedure policies of EU Member States can be classified on the basis of such a criterion as the form of the state. Thus, the form of state government can distinguish the constitutional monarchical model (type) of criminal procedural policy and the republican model (type) of criminal procedural policy. In turn, the republican model (type) of criminal procedural policy is of two types, semi-presidential and parliamentary. It should be emphasized that the EU Member States are not characterized by the presidential kind of the model (type) of republican criminal procedural policy. According to the form of the state system there are a unitary and a federal model (type) of criminal procedure policy. According to the form of state regime, all EU Member States belong to the democratic model (type) of criminal procedure policy.
One of the criteria for the classification of models (types) of criminal procedural policies is the methodology of codification of criminal procedural law. According to this criterion, it is possible to distinguish classical continental, Swedish (Scandinavian) and Anglo-Saxon model (type) of criminal procedure policy.